Movie connections

Movie connections overview

This section records connections (often trivial) between titles. There are two basic types of connections:

"Simple" connections

"Simple" connections always occur in pairs and are limited to the title pair only. You only need to send one connection of the pair, we'll create the other connection automatically.
edited into actual footage from the title has been edited into a subsequent movie to form part of the newer movie without reference to the earlier movie (i.e., not a flashback)
edited from part of the movie has been constructed by editing footage from a previous title; there is no indication the footage is from a different movie
featured in extracts from the title are featured in a subsequent movie, for example, on TV or characters attend a cinema screening during the movie, or the audio from a program is heard on a TV or a flashback sequence or a clip in a review program
features extracts from a previous movie are featured (not just stills or sounds)
remade as the movie was subsequently remade
remake of the title is a remake of a previous title
spin off some characters/situations or a distinct fictional universe from one project were used to create a subsequent project (mostly used for TV series)
spin off from some characters/situations from a previous project were used during the project
spoofed in a joke reference to the title is made in a subsequent production
spoofs the movie makes a joke reference to a previous title
referenced in the title is referenced or a homage paid to it in a subsequent movie; this includes recreations of TV programs (i.e., fake segments of real talk shows), and off-screen references (i.e. the background music score).
references the title references or pays homage to a previous title (i.e., a still/poster/artifact; mentioned by name; scene discussed by characters; dialog quoted in non-spoofing way)

Very often references and spoofs are rather subjective. Please note that we only accept references and spoofs if it is obvious that the filmmakers clearly had the other title in mind when writing, directing, photographing or scoring a specific scene. This should be reflected in the given reason. If you notice an unexplained reference and have recently watched a film whilst looking for the reference but couldn't find it then please submit a delete to remove the link from the title. Please see the "Notes"-section below for more information.

"Complex" connections

"Complex" connections are links between titles stored in a group. Groups can be ordered by release date ("follows"/"followed by" connections) or completely unordered ("version of" connections).
followed by the title has a sequel or in some way is followed by a future title
follows the title is a sequel or in some way follows on from a previous title - the order of follows/followed by is determined by initial release date, not internal timelines (see below)
version of the title is another version of a play/novel/etc., i.e. not originally written for the screen. For a TV series, it is a version of a series from, usually, another country
alternate language version of this link type is limited to older films, when two different versions were made concurrently using the same sets and sometimes overlapping cast/crews

Note: Currently, new complex connections can only be submitted via this form. The same applies to deletions or modification of existing complex connections.


  • The "Reason" box should be used to explain how both films are connected. These reasons will be published on the site, so be clear, concise and specific when explaining the connection. Keep in mind that for simple connections the reason will be used for both directions (i.e. references/referenced in) and for complex connections potentially for the whole group. For example, a common reason for a version connection follows the pattern "Based on the novel/play/etc (title) by (author)" so it works for all titles in a group.
  • "Remake" vs. "version of". Remakes are based on another, specific title that has been written originally for the screen, whereas versions are based on a literary source, like a novel, play or fairy tale. Therefore remakes should always be referenced to the title they are based on, whereas versions form a group of titles that share the same literary source. Please do not submit titles based on literary sources as remakes.
  • "Spin off" vs. "followed by". Titles that are part of a continuous story line, usually involving the same characters, have to be linked with "followed by". Thus an ordered group is created containing all parts of the story. For a "spin off", characters or central elements from the original story are developed into a different storyline. This new storyline can itself form part of a new "followed by"-group. Please do not submit proper sequels as spin-offs.
  • Simple Connections for TV series are accepted on a limited basis. Generally, references/spoofs made by a series, or footage featured in/edited into a series are accepted only for specific episodes. However, references/spoofs made to a series by, say, a film, or footage from a series featured in/edited into a film are accepted. For TV series that are transported to another country/language, the new version is considered a version-of the original version; a sequel/spin-off in the new country would be a sequel/spin-off of the local version.
  • Complex Connections for TV episodes are accepted on a limited basis. Generally follows/followed by connections are accepted only on a series basis and not individual episodes. On the other hand, version connections are usually only valid on a series basis ("version of same show concept from different country") and not individual episodes. Exceptions are TV series based on stories by the same author, for example individual episodes of a TV series based on different Sherlock Holmes stories.
  • Similarities in the plot are not considered movie links. i.e. simply because two movies feature a government official who goes rogue to seek revenge and drives a blue Chevy does not mean that one movie references the other. Please consider submitting a plot keyword instead.
  • Generic references that do not link specific titles are not considered movie links. i.e. just because a character mentions Bond/Harry Potter/Frodo/etc. does not mean a reference to a specific Bond/Harry Potter/Lord of the Rings title or even all of them. Unless of course it is clear that a specific title is meant (i.e. poster/T-Shirt/specific cast reference). Otherwise, please consider submitting a plot keyword instead.
  • Correcting an ordered chain of titles: groups consisting of an ordered chain of titles (follows/followed by) are always ordered by release date. If the release date alone is not enough to disambiguate two titles, the numerical value of the tconst is used. At the moment it is impossible to correct the chain order of two titles with the same release date where part two has a lower tconst than part one for example. Providing exact release dates for part one and two will fix the order if the dates are not identical, but please do not make up release dates in order to tweak the sort order of a chain.
  • Please do not use words like "obviously" or "clearly" when describing a connection.
  • Please note that any "Coming Next Time On" or "Previously On" segments featured in successive episodes of a series are ineligible and should not be added as movie connections.
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